Adi Shankara , in his commentary on Yoga Sutras , distinguishes Dhyana from Dharana, by explaining Dhyana as the yoga state when there is only the "stream of continuous thought about the object, uninterrupted by other thoughts of a different kind for the same object"; Dharana, states Shankara, is focussed on one object, but aware of its many aspects and ideas about the same object.
Shankara gives the example of a yogin in a state of dharana on morning sun may be aware of its brilliance, color and orbit; the yogin in dhyana state "contemplates on sun's orbit alone for example, without being interrupted by its color, brilliance or other related ideas", according to Trevor Leggett.
Samadhi is oneness with the subject of meditation. There is no distinction, during the eighth limb of yoga, between the actor of meditation, the act of meditation and the subject of meditation. Samadhi is that spiritual state when one's mind is so absorbed in whatever it is contemplating on, that the mind loses the sense of its own identity. The thinker, the thought process and the thought fuse with the subject of thought. There is only oneness, samadhi.
Samadhi is of two kinds,  [web 1] with and without support of an object of meditation: [web 2]. According to Ian Whicher, the status of sananda and sasmita in Patanjali's system is a matter of dispute. The explanations of the classical commentators on this point appear to be foreign to Patanjali's hierarchy of [ecstatic] states, and it seems unlikely that ananda and asmita should constitute independent levels of samadhi.
Ian Whicher disagrees with Feuerstein, seeing ananda and asmita as later stages of nirvicara-samapatti. Vijnana Bikshu ca. Vijnana Bikshu regards joy ananda as a state that arises when the mind passes beyond the vicara stage. The metaphysics of Patanjali is built on the same dualist foundation as the Samkhya school.
The end of this bondage is called liberation, or moksha by both Yoga and Samkhya school of Hinduism.
It further claims that this awareness is eternal, and once this awareness is achieved, a person cannot ever cease being aware; this is moksha , the soteriological goal in Hinduism. Book 3 of Patanjali's Yogasutra is dedicated to soteriological aspects of yoga philosophy.
Patanjali begins by stating that all limbs of yoga are necessary foundation to reaching the state of self-awareness, freedom and liberation. He refers to the three last limbs of yoga as sanyama , in verses III. The Yogasutras of Patanjali use the term Isvara in 11 verses: I. Ever since the Sutra's release, Hindu scholars have debated and commented on who or what is Isvara?
These commentaries range from defining Isvara from a "personal god" to "special self" to "anything that has spiritual significance to the individual". The Yoga Sutras incorporated the teachings of many other Indian philosophical systems prevalent at the time. Samkhya and Yoga are thought to be two of the many schools of philosophy that originated over the centuries that had common roots in the non-Vedic cultures and traditions of India.
The Vedanta - Sramana traditions, iconolatry and Vedic rituals can be identified with the Jnana marga, Bhakti marga and the Karma marga respectively that are outlined in the Bhagavad Gita. The Yoga Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy, an orthodox Astika and atheistic Hindu system of dualism, and are generally seen as the practice while Samkhya is the theory.
The Yoga Sutras diverge from early Samkhya by the addition of the principle of Isvara or God, as exemplified by Sutra 1. Scholars have presented different viewpoints on the relationship between Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and the teachings in Buddhist texts. Karel Werner writes, "Patanjali's system is unthinkable without Buddhism.
Patanjali is neither a founder nor a leader of a new movement. The ingenuity of his [Patanjali's] achievement lies in the thoroughness and completeness with which all the important stages of Yoga practice and mental experiences are included in his scheme, and in their systematic presentation in a succinct treatise. Other scholars state there are differences between the teachings in the Yoga Sutras and those in Buddhist texts. According to Barbara Miller,  the difference between Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and teachings in Buddhist texts is, "In Samkhya and Yoga, as in Buddhism and Jainism, the most salient characteristic of existence is duhkha or suffering.
According to Buddhism, the origin of suffering is desire; according to Yoga, it is the connection between the observer Purusha with the observed Prakrti. In both systems, the origin of duhkha is ignorance. There are also similarities in the means of deliverance recommended by the two systems. In Buddhism, the aspirant is asked to follow the eightfold path, which culminates in right meditation or samadhi. In Yoga, the aspirant is asked to follow a somewhat different eight fold path, which also culminates in samadhi. But the aim of yoga meditation is conceived in terms that a Buddhist would not accept: as the separation of an eternal conscious self from unconscious matter.
The purpose of Patanjali's Yoga is to bring about this separation by means of understanding, devotion and practice. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era, having been translated into about forty Indian languages and two non-Indian languages: Old Javanese and Arabic. By early 21st century, scholars had located 37 editions of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras published between and , and 82 different manuscripts, from various locations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Europe and the United States, many in Sanskrit, some in different North and South Indian languages.
This has made the chronological study of Yoga school of philosophy a difficult task. Many commentaries have been written on the Yoga Sutras. This commentary is indispensable for the understanding of the aphoristic and terse Yoga sutras, and the study of the sutras has always referred to the Yogabhashya. According to Philipp A. The Yogabhashya states that 'yoga' in the Yoga Sutras has the meaning of 'samadhi'.
Another commentary the Vivarana by a certain Shankara, confirms the interpretation of yogah samadhih YBh. Scholarly opinion is still open on this issue. Countless commentaries on the Yoga Sutras are available today. The Sutras , with commentaries, have been published by a number of successful teachers of Yoga, as well as by academicians seeking to clarify issues of textual variation. There are also other versions from a variety of sources available on the Internet. The text has not been submitted in its entirety to any rigorous textual analysis, and the contextual meaning of many of the Sanskrit words and phrases remains a matter of some dispute.
Some of the major commentaries on the Yoga Sutras were written between the ninth and sixteenth century. Popular interest arose in the 19th century, when the practice of yoga according to the Yoga Sutras became regarded as the science of yoga and the "supreme contemplative path to self-realization" by Swami Vivekananda , following Helena Blavatsky , president of the Theosophical Society.
According to David Gordon White , the popularity of the Yoga Sutras is recent, "miraculously rehabilitated" by Swami Vivekananda after having been ignored for seven centuries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Other scriptures. Bhagavad Gita Agamas. Ramayana Mahabharata. Shastras and sutras. Chronology of Hindu texts. He is a sought-after presenter internationally and has presented on yoga therapy in India, the US, Sri Lanka and Australia in recent years.
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